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Dr. FATAH SINGH

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Indus Valley Script Decipherment

Indus Valley Script

Vedic Basis of Indus Culture

Symbolism of Brahmanas and Upanishdas in Indus Valley Script

Critical view of decipherment of Indus script

 

 

 

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Plate 3

 

Plate 4

Plate 5

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the Veda. The Moki is the utter darkness, represented by dark seventh series of U-shaped symbol in the Ahura mazda image, whereas the Oki rises upwards with the eighth series which is bright and closely touched by the letter O, held by Ahura Mazda in his hand.

MO AND OM -

          Thus, Ahura Mazda's Mo may be taken to indicate yogi's consciousness, ascending to the supramental heights of brightness above the seven layers of consciousness as found in the ego, mind and five senses of an ordinary human being. As opposed to this, the OM of Indus seal (plate No. 1) may be understood as the descent of divine power in the body of Yogi, energizing what are known as nine padas (steps) of the consciousness, named Sahasřakshar Vk in the Vedas[1]. In the Indus seal, the nine steps have been shown by the nine leaves of the Peepal tree, pointing out to the ideal personality of the Vedic Yogi who was not satisfied only with his inner achievement, but had become used to utilize his yogic power in accomplishing the best form of human behavior, called Yajna[2].

This ideal could be achieved only when the individual soul become used to be in communion with the higher spirit. The two are then described as the two Suparņa friends, closely united and embracing the self-same tree :

}k lqi.kkZ l;qtk l[kk;k lekua o`{ka ifj"kLotkrsA [Rv. 1.164.2.]

Out of this pair, one (i.e. human soul) is enjoying th tasty fruits of the pepal tree, while the other (higher spirit) simply looks on without tasting anything :-

r;ksjU;ks fiIiya Loknq vfk] vu'uu~ vU;ks vfHkpkd'khfr (RV. 1.164.20)

Although, here the higher spirit is depicted as quiet and calm, nevertheless his divine power is flowing together with that of individual soul. That is why the power of Yogi is called Sāhasrī or Sahasrākşarā Vāk i.e. the joint flow of the two.

THE UNICORN - This joint flow of the power may be well compared with the flow of power, energizing the said nine steps of Vāk symbolized by the nine leaves of peepal tree in the Indus seal, (plate No. 1), if we accept the two unicorns of the seal to represent the two suparņa friends of the Veda. This is, however, not difficult. The word Suparņa literally means a beautiful leaf. Although in the Vedic context, commentators have translated it as bird, in the context of the peepal tree of Indus seal, the two closely united with the tree like other nine leaves, can very well be conceived as two leaves. They have been thus called beautiful (Su) leaves (parna) Moreover, here the two Suparņas being animal heads, with a horn, could not be conceived as birds.

Although, there is no horn associated with the Suparņa twins of the Vedas, never-the-less, the concept of horn, found in the Veda, refers to the same context of spiritual union, This union of human soul with God results in a release of divine power called rajas which is described as a sun-like eye and also as the highest horn, as if of rays :-

xokfeo J;ls J`axeqkee~] lw;ksZ p{kw jtl% foltZusA (RV. 5-59-3)

In the unicorn of Indus seals (plate No.1), we, find this eye as well as the horn. In the spiritual union of the individual spirit with the Supreme deity, the latter is Savita described as calm and quiet, and also as the horn of Řta, spreading widely and overpowering the hostile forces in man. What is most relevant is the fact that this description is comprised by a prayer that twins may never separate. The twins here are also united like the two unicorns of the Indus seal of peepal tree. The Vedic mantra reads as follows :-

_rsu nso lfork 'kek;rA

_rL; JzaxeqfoZ;k fo iizFksA

_ra lklkg efg fpr~ i`rU;r%A

ek uks fo ;kS"Ve~ l[;k eqekspre~ [Rv. 8.86.5]

In the mantra proceeding to this, there is a call to the hero existing far away and having his tasty wisdom (sumati). He is also conceived as a father. This clearly suggests the same spiritual union of human soul with his divine father (God), resulting in the release of the extraordinary power mentioned earlier.

A revealing fact in this respect is found in the sevenfold version of twins of this type. They are originally the inward and outward motion of consciousness, described as follows:-

ijk~ p iwokZ~ pA rkS izk.kkikukSA rs vgksjk=sA rkS iwokZiji{kkS] rkfoekS yksdkS [|koki`fFkO;kS] rkfoUnzkXuh] rkS fe=ko#.kkS] rkof'oukS] rn~ nSO;a feFkqua ;fnna fda p }a} rn Hkorke~A [tS 3-334]

Without going into the details of the each type of twins, it may be remarked that they all represent the stages of the consciousness, involving the ascent and descent, prior to the ultimate union of soul and God in samadhi, as depicted in the union of two Suparņas of the Veda and the two unicorns of Indus seal with a peepal tree. This ultimate union causing the release of divine power, as depicted in the Vedic mantras quoted above, and also as shown in the Indus seal of peepal tree, has another version in the Iranian image of Ahura-Mazda, emanating as eight series of U -shaped symbols.

THE U SHAPED SYMBOL -The U-shaped symbol (plate 3) in fact signifies a wave or ray of energy. This can be substantiated by a number of these symbols found not only on Indus seals, but also in Vedic and Buddhist tradition.

In the picture of Ahura Mazda, the three series of U-shaped symbols are below the waist of Ahura Mazda, whereas the five above his waist. Although on Indus seals, we nowhere find these seven series as such, but we do find U-shaped symbol with three or four lines as UIII and UIIII (plate 3). As these lines show numbers, the former may be taken to denote the three series below the waist of Ahur mazda and the latter may be understood as those existing above the waist. The remaining eighth having close contact with the O-shaped symbol, held by Ahura Mazda in his hand, may be seen in the union of the U-shaped curbs pertaining to the two unicorns of Indus seal. The same we find in the union of two Vedic Suparņas embracing the self-same tree.

As already stated, this union marks the ultimate union prior to which there are seven types of duality in Vedic tradition, comparable to seven series of U-shaped symbol in the Ahurmazda picture. It is significant that the Union of two unicorns of Indus seal may also be said to produce Om from which the tree with nine leaves emanates. As the U-shaped symbol may also be taken to denote U sound of the Veda. we may compare it also with the short and long U occurring in what is Samhitā-patha of the Vedic mantras. The same is, however, rendered as OM (nasalised U) in pada-path. It is also generally considered as the substitute of OM. The reason why it is retained as U without any nasal sound in the Samhitā patha may be seen in the meaning of the word Samhitā. Defined as close proximity (ij% lafud"kZ% lafgrk), the Samhitā is seen in the series of U-shaped symbol in the picture of Ahur mazda at the lower level, representing the energized human personality, before Yogic Samadhi. The nasalized U of Veda may be, on the other hand, taken to signify the energy at the higher levels, leading to OM of Samadhi. In the Veda, the former is called Asura, whereas the higher one is Mahat. The Ahura Mazda combines in Him the both and In this respect, he may be compared with Vedic Prajapati, creating gods from his side called SU and Asuras from the side, called Asu (lksnsZokul`tr~ vlksjlqjku~).

THE UNION OF TWO U SHAPED SYMBOLSThus Ahur mazda may be taken as the union of two U-shaped symbols, one representing the SU and the other the ASU of prajapati. Again, we find the same union in the Lord Shiv combining both ghora (terrible) and aghora (terror-less). Also, there are several Vedic gods like Agni, Mitra, Varuna and even Indra who are called Asura, as well as Deva. The form of supreme deity combining both the extremes is shown (plate 4) in an Indus seal (plate 4) where two human figures are presenting their U-shaped symbol to a third man seated on a throne with a head-dress ----- by the combination of the two U-shaped symbols The same is also found on the heads of three images of humans, found on three different Indus seals (plate No. 4). Each one is sitting in an yogic posture, one of them has been wrongly declared by father Heras as the image of the pasupati. All the three, in fact, represent the three stages of yogic practice.

The fourth stage of yogic meditation is, indeed, represented by the Indus seal (plate 5), where a human figure backed by UIIII symbol, is presenting the U to a tree with triple series of foliage, parallel to each other and comparable to the three series of U-shaped symbol, found below the waist ofAhura Mazda. As a tree is Vedic symbol for human personality, the human figure, backed by UIIII may be taken to signify the higher eighth series of U-shaped symbol or the mahat level of human personality energizing the lower level signified by the tree with the triple series of foliage. After energization, the two warring aspects of human personality, represented here by two men, each with a branch of tree

1. Compare RV. 1.164.20; 10.27.22; SSU. 4.5.7

in his hand, find a third person to intervene between the two. After this intervention, the person on the tree symbolizing the human soul in a body is able to challenge the tiger-demon proceeding towards a covered pot probably to take away some valuable treasure kept there.

The covered pot is, in fact, a monogram formed by V-Shaped symbol, with a lid of something like n-shaped symbol (plate No. 5). Thus it means Vana, figuring as synonym of Rashmi in the Nighantu. Thus it is the vanam of the Upanishad which is said to be worshipped as Brahman. This is the first flame of the spiritual fire heralding the state of Samadhi. Having the capacity to challenge the tiger-demon, it is, in a way, the state of readiness to overcome the

[1] v"Vkinh-uoinh cqHkqoq"kh jkglzk{kjk ijes O;kseu~A (RV. 1.164.45)

 

[2] ;K% Js" Brea deZA (kath. 30.10,  TB. 3.2.1.4,  ŚB. 1.7.1.5)