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Dr. FATAH SINGH

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Indus Valley Script Decipherment

Indus Valley Script

Vedic Basis of Indus Culture

Symbolism of Brahmanas and Upanishdas in Indus Valley Script

Critical view of decipherment of Indus script

 

 

 

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texts. Because of this deviation, these names have lost all their threads binding them to the original symbolism and consequently they have become totally legendry figures.

In certain cases, some symbolic figures of the Vedas have been closely associated with some historical personalities. For instance, there is Jivrī, the father from whom the Vedas can be had (RV. 1.70.5). The same may be compared with the angel Gibrael who brings the Āyats of the Holy Koran to the great prophet of Islam. Likewise, the Rig-Veda mentions Indra's one famous exploit - the cross (Kŗsē RV. 8.3.20. 32.3). This might have been unnoticed, had there been no mention of Kristi-hā, that is, the killer of a Kristi (RV. 9.71.2). It seems that Krişa is same as cross, and Kristihā is same as the killer of Christ. In that case, the Krişti of the Veda must be taken as Indra who is known for his singular exploit at the cross (Krişa) and then, the killing is only symbolic in the sense that the krişti loses his 'envelope' (Vavri) and goes to his father's close and refined place and thereby makes his progeny shining. The krişti Indra is the human soul who is relieved of his envelope of ignorance, when the power of Soma (divine bliss) who is conceived as the killer of Krişti, comes roaring. Obviously, it has nothing to do with any historical personality. Therefore, if it got mixed up with the historical Christ's life, it must be taken to point out his transformation under the influence of the divine power which he got from his divine father. In this respect, very important evidence comes from Tamil literature. This is particularly valuable, as it is highly damaging to the theory that Dravidian cities of Indus valley were destroyed by the Vedic people who were aliens. Let us start with the word Dravid itself. According to Tamil lexicographers and philologists, originally the same was Dramitra from which came Dravid as well as Tamil. The word Dramitra is, in fact, Indramitra, the name of the twins (deities) In the Vedas. It has only dropped its  initial 'In' to become Dramitra. This conclusion accords with the Vedic evidence ( R. V. 7. 33.10-14) which proves that Agastya of Tamil literature along with Vasistha was born of Indramitra. It is believed that Agastya went from North  to the South from where he never returned.

If we analyze the symolic description of the birth of Agastya and Vasistha, as given in the Veda, we find that the jar into which Indra-Mitra put their seman is human body and Vasistha and Agastya respectively represent the inner and the outer man. The former is confined to Ayodhya, the symbol of the inner personality involved in spiritual development, whereas the latter is concerned with the efficient social behaviour. The first belongs to uttara (lit, higher) direction while the latter is totally devoted to Dakşiņa (lit, efficient) direction. Vasistha rose from the inside of the Jar, but the Agastya came forth from the outer part of the Jar (human body).

DRAVIDA AND INDRAMITRA - Among the Indian names Vasistha comes from the root vas, to reside with superlative suffix 'istha'. Hence it literally means one 'Most residing'. This derivation is in keeping with Vasistha's deep devotion to Ayodhya. He can therefore, also be called Aga, 'the not-going one'. And Agastya means the one who expands the Aga. Representing the social behaviour of Man, Agastyva is really so.

Thus Indramitra may be taken to be at the root of what is called Sangama or the meeting place of two different things. Sangana is also the name of the ancient Tamil Literature, classified into Aham and Idam, that is, ‘I’ and 'This', the inner and the outer world. This reminds us of the concluding hymn of the Rigveda exhorting the people not only to walk and talk together, but also to know each other’s mind and heart, so that there may be a beautiful co-existence.

The hymn here emphasizes the importance of what is called Samvananam, that is, emotional integration as well as Sañjyāna, that mutual understanding. The total outcome of this sangama process may be seen in the Vedic concept of Rāştrī, that is, the goddess of nationalism, called sangamani Vasūnām, the force uniting all the residents. The whole thing conforms to the concept of Brhad Samveshyam Rāstram, mentioned earlier.

VEDIC PEOPLE AND DRAVIDA : All this may sound ill to those who consider the Vedic and Dravida people as hostile to each other. However, the Tamil tradition is totally against them. Here I would briefly mention a few facts. First of all, take the oldest Tamil book, named Tolakappiam, ascribed to the disciple of Agastya. According to this work, Vedic gods, Visnu, subrahmanyam, Varuņa and Indra were regarded as respectively controlling the forests, hills, waters and the agriculture land.[1] On the evidence of Sangam literature of Tamil, Dr. Krishna Swami Iyengar[2] points that the ancient Tamil tradition regarded the entire country from chera and pandya in the south upto the Himalyas in the North as one motherland. An ancient work, named Shilappadhi-kāram makes the mention of temples for Shiva, Subrahmanyam, Visnu and Indra, in the ancient city of Kaveripattanam . Manimekhalā, a buddhist text, describes how this city was named after the river Kaveri that came out of the Kamandalu of Agastya who was practicing penances at Malaya Mountain of the South. The same ancient book also tells us how Agastya ordered a chola king to celebrate a festival for Indra, lasting for twenty eight days. To see these great festivals, even the gods from Kailash in the north came to Kaveripattanam.

As the oldest Sangam literature dates back to 900 B.C., the facts mentioned above go to prove that at that time the whole of India was considered as one country, and that the south was, in  no way, behind the worship of Vedic gods. There is reference to a Chola king[3] who performed Rajasūya Yajña. There is also the mention of a Chera-king[4] whose empire extends up to the Himalayas in the North. Therefore, there is no wonder that, even in the pre-Ashokan and pre-buddhist times, the south was a strong centre of Vedic Culture. This is the reason why system of Tamil Grammar was named after Indra, the great Vedic god, or after Agasya, the Vedic Rishi.

In the face of this evidence, it seems rather odd to regard Dravid culture as non-Vedic. There is, however, God Murugan who is regarded as peculiarly Tamil and unknown to the northern traditions. Dr. Karmarkar, the author of "The vratya System of Religions" regards it an uncontroversial evidence to prove that Dravidian culture is non-Vedic.[5]  On investigation, this opinion has proved to be quite wrong. Murugan is same as the Vedic Marudgana. Besides the phonetic resemblance of Murugan and Marudgana, the detailed description of the two also tallies. The following details may be particularly noted :-

1) Murugan is red, having the colour of fire, Marudgana is also generally described as having the form (RV, 10.81.1). eyes (RV. 3.26.5). or the colour of Agni (R.V. 8.7.7.) or shining like the  fire (RV. 10.78.3).

2) Murugan is said to be stationed on high hills, covered with trees. Marudgana resides on hills and their epithet giriştha, meaning stationed on hill (RV. 8.83.1-3) is well-known. The hills associated with them are called Vriksha-keshah, that is, the hills having trees as their hair (RV. 5.41.11).

3) According to Tolakppiam, Murugan is the lord of a hill, named Kuranji, his dance is called 'Kuravai', and the girls who dance with him are known as ‘Kurawa’. Here the particle ' Kura ' common to Kuranji, Kurvai and Kurava is the transformation of the Sanskrit word 'giri'. Vedic Marudgana is also often associated with Vedic word 'anji' which, prefixed by giri, may be responsible for the Tamil term 'Kuranji’, know as the hill of Murugana. Marudgana is also famous for dancing and playing like children (RV. 1.166.2; 10. 78.6; 5.57.5).

Like Tamil Murugan, Vedic Marudgana is also famous for their amorous as well as heroic behaviour. Vedic Maruts decorate themselves like a bridegroom and, like Murugan, are associated with women (RV. 10.86.9; 7.96.2; 5.56.8; 6.66. 1.167.4-5). They are also called Bhadrajamagah, meaning those who possess noble wives (RV. 5.61.4). Like Tamil Murugan, they are also brave heroes (1.64.4, 122.15 5.54.10). When the word Senānī (lit. an armyman) or Raja is used for a group of Maruts (R. 7.20.5; 9.96.1; 10.34.12; 8.4.), the beginning is made to treat Marudgana (lit. the group of maruts) as the Murugan who is identified with Senani  Katrtikeya (skand). The equation of Vedic Marudgana or Murugan of Tamil with Senani Kartikeya Skand is quite natural, as Marudagana also, like Kartikeya Skand[6] are the sons of Rudra (RV. 1.114.6-9, 2.33.1). Also like Skand, they are born of Agni (RV. 1.71.8; 6.3.6). Peacock, associated with Tamil Murugan[7] is not only the carrier of Skand but is can also be seen in the 'Hansasah neelprişthāh (lit. the swans with blue back ) of Marudgana[8].

In the light of What has been said already, the identity of Dravidian culture with the Vedic is beyond and doubt. Even if we do not accept Shri Aurobindo's view that Tamil is more distantly related to Sanskrit than European languages, there is ample evidence to show that the two languages have been originally very close with each other. Apart from many other similarities, the Tamil words signifying family relations are peculiarly Vedic. The word appa meaning father has cognates in the Vedic words like apyā, apna, apatya. āpyam. Āpi etc. all derived from root ap from whch comes Tamil appā. Similarly, the Tamil ammā, meaning mother, is same as Vedic ambā, having may other cognates like in amba,  ambareesha, ambālikā, ambikā and Trayambaka.

Ignoring all these facts, it is really painful to learn that there has been a deliberate effort to create wedge between Dravidians and Vedic people whom they call Aryan invaders. Some eminent historians agree that "The use of Aryan and Dravidian as racial terms is unknown to scientific students of anthropology."[9] There is no "Dravidian race and no Aryan race", says A.L. Basham.[10]  According to S.S. Sarkar, 'The terms Aryan and Dravidian refer to linguistic groups."[11] It is, therefore, high time that our scholars refrain from knowingly or unknowingly playing into the hands of imperialism to spread the virus of racialism which has been very ? avoided by our forefathers in the past. The fact that Vedic people gave us the concept of universal man and created professional groups and castes to wipe out racial distinction must be realized by us sooner than later. This is my humble submission to you, breathen, and also through you to the nation. May God lead us from darkness to light.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


[1] The Vratya System of religious pp 131.

 

[2] Some contributions of the South India to Indian Culture p.53

[3] Some contributions of the South  to Indian Culture, pp. 53

[4] Ibid.

[5] The Vratya Systems of religion, pp 131.

[6] For the birth of Sknad from Agni, See Ramayana 1.37; Mahabharat 3.228-229, Venkataramanayya' Rudra Shiva, pp. 72-74

[7] Dr. Karamarkar, the Vratya Systems of religion, pp. 131.

[8] RV. 7.59.7

[9] Nilakantha Shastri, cultural contacts between Aryana and Dravidians, P.2.

[10] Bulletion of the Institute of Historial Rsearch II, Madras (1963).

[11] S.S. Sarkar, Cultural Heritage of India Vol. 1 P. 17.